WARRANT OF CONSTITUTION
WAR RELIEF ASSOCIATION, MASONIC
WARREN, GENERAL JOSEPH.
WASHING HANDS.
WASHINGTON, A MARK MASON.
WASHINGTON AT CHARLES TOWN.
WASHINGTON.
WASHINGTON, CONGRESS OF.

WARRANT OF CONSTITUTION
The Document which authorizes or gives a Warrant to certain persons therein named to organize and constitute a Lodge, Chapter, or other Masonic Body, and whitch ends usually with the formula, "for which this shall be your sufficient Warrant "
The practise of granting Warrants for the Constitution of Lodges, dates only from the period of the Revival of Freemasonry in 1717 Previous to that period "a sufficient number oƒ brethren," says Preston (Illustrations, edition of 1792, page 248), "met to gether within a certain district, had ample power to make Masons, and discharge every duty of Masonry without a Warrant of Constitution " But in 1717 a regulation was adopted "that the privilege of assembling as Masons, which had been hitherto unlimited, should be vested in certain Lodges or assemblies of Masons convened in certain places; and that every Lodge to be hereafter Convened, except the four old Lodges at this time existing, should be legally authorized to act by a Warrant from the Grand Master, for the time being, granted to certain individuals by petition, with the Consent and approbation of the Grand Lodge in communieation; and that without such Warrant no Lodge should be hereafter deemed regular or Constitutional "

Consequently ever Since the adoption of that regulation, no Lodge has been regular unless it is working under such an authority The Word Warrant is appropriately used, because in its legal acceptation it means a document giving authority to perform some Specified act In England, the Warrant of Constitution emanates frown the Grand Master; in the United states from the Grand Lodge in America, the Grand Master grants only a dispensation to hold a Lodge, which may be revoked or confirmed by the Grand Lodge; and in the latter case, the Warrant will then be issued The Warrant of Constitution is granted to the Master and Wardens, and to their successors in office.
It continues in force only during the pleasure of the Grand Lodge, and may, therefore, at any time be revoked, and the Lodge dissolved by a vote of that Body, or it may be temporarily arrested or suspended by an edict of the Grand Master This will, however, never be done, unless the Lodge has violated the ancient landmarks or failed to pay due respect and obedience to the Grand Lodge or to the Grand Master At the formation of the first Lodges in a number of the States in the South and Middle West, the Grand Lodges of other States granted both Dispensations and Charters When a Warrant of Constitution is revoked or recalled, the jewels furniture, and funds of the Lodge revert to the Grand Lodge

Lastly, as a Lodge holds its communications only under the authority of this Warrant of Constitution, no Lodge can be opened, or proceed to business, unless it be present if it be mislaid or destroyed, it must be recovered or another obtained; and until that is done, the Communications of the Lodge must be suspended; and if the Warrant of Constitution be taken out of the room during the session of the Lodge, the authority of the Master instantly ceases Some pertinent Comments upon the early use of Significant and frequently employed words to be found in the documents of Freemasonry are discussed by Brother W J Chetwode Crawley (see Caementaria Hiberica, Fasciculus ii). we condense these herewith on the word Warrant, Constitution, Deputation, and Regular. The earliest mention of the word Warrant in connection with Grand Lodge is found in Number VIII of the General Regulations of 1721, comprised in doctor Anderson's Contstitutions, 1723, where the Brethren are warned that "they must obtain the Grand Master's Warrant to join in forming a new Lodge, and that he must approve of them by his Warrant, which must be signify'd to the other Lodges " The provision is in the first Irish Code, 1730, hut condensed by the Grand Secretary, Brother John Pennell.

The Minutes of the Grand Lodge of Munster for John the Baptist's Day, 1730, show that Grand Lodge considered the petitions of Brethren at Waterford and Clonmell "to have a Warrant from our Grand Lodge for assembling and holding Regular Lodges " Both passages and context allow no doubt that the word Warrand is used in its etymological Sense of permission, and not in its secondary sense of a permanent document embodying that authorization. This permission was involved in the formal Constitution of the Lodge by the Grand Master, or, failing him, by a brothers to whom he issued a written Deputation for the purpose This document has often and mistakenly been called the Warrant, or Charter, by brethren familiar with the legal qualities that form a Charter, and who were unable to distinguish between a Warrant or general authorization of 1723, and Warrant or permanent documents of today.

The words Constitution and Deputation had similar development The Constitution and Deputation of 1723 meant a ceremony; the Constitution of fifty years later often, not always, meant a document. The Deputation of 1723 meant entrusting duties to one who stood for the Grand Master; the Deputation displayed today, with just pride, in certain old Lodges, is a document delegating those temporary duties.

The word Regular, too, has had a modern connotation attributed to it that has helped to increase the confusion. It simply meant, in the first instance, that the Lodge to which it was applied had come under the jurisdiction—sub regula —of the Grand Lodge, in contradistinction to Lodges which had not so submitted themselves. These latter Lodges were not necessarily clandestine or irregular. They were only non-regular in that they were outside the jurisdiction of the recently formed Grand Lodge but many, with hasty judgment, have assumed that all Brethren who, in those early days, were not regular, must be irregular a judgment far from truth. Evidence of the existence of legitimate non-regular Lodges has multiplied of late years.
The Lodge at Warrington, in which Elias Ashmole was initiated in 1646, once stood well-nigh alone as an accredited example. Today we have even more striking examples in the Lodge discovered by Brother Edward Condor to have been held in 1636 under the auspices of the Masons Company, in London, and in the Lodge at Chester, to which Randle Holme belonged in l688, and which Brother W. H Rylands has proved to have been a Speculative Lodge. The Irish Lodge, traditionally held at Donneraile, in which the honorable Elizabeth Saint Leger was initiated before 1713, belonged to the same category.

The old Lodge at Alnwick, apparently an Operative survival, has left By-laws dated 1701, and Minutes dated 1703 The Lodge at Swalwell, in Durham, possessing records from 1725, did not become Regular by exhibiting a Constitution from the Grand Lodge of England until 1735 Evidence is not wanted of similar neighboring Lodges which failed to follow the Lodge at Swalwell even in this tardy submissions to the Grand Lodge in London. When we passed in review the series of Masonic Manuals published by Brother William Smith in 1735 and 1736, we find a flourishing Lodge at Hexhan mentioned in the Book M (see introduction to the Pocket Companion, 1735) This Lodge according to Brother John Lane, never became Regular by coming under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of England Similarly, Doctor Stukely's Lodge at Grantham, in Lincolnshire, never became Regular, though we knew from his Diary that it existed under his tutelage from 1796 to 1730.
As a matter of history all Lodges before 1717 existed under like conditions Those Time Immemorial Lodges continuing work after Grand Lodge was founded, came gradually and voluntarily under its jurisdiction, if they did so at all. Such of them as remained aloof did not forfeit their right to be regarded as Lodges of Freemasons
They were Non-Regular Lodges. Reference to the ecclesiastical use of the word Regular will help to make its original Masonic use clear. In the Roman Catholic Church the clergy were divided into two great sections—the Monastic and the Parochial. The Monastic clergy are alone entitled to be styled Regular, as being under the Rule— sub regula—of their special Order. Parochial clergy are styled Non-Regular, or Secular It would be the height of inconsequence to style them Irregular. Each of these verbal misconceptions is trifling in itself, and obvious when pointed out in the aggregate, they have generally helped to obscure the origin of the now universal practice of holding no Lodge to be Regular unless it possesses a permanent Charter embodying its rights This is the Irish use.

We have seen that the issuing of permanent Warrants or Charters to its supporting Lodges formed no part of the theory of Constitution contemplated by the Grand Lodge of England When the first Warrant was issued by the Grand Lodge of Ireland, the step was along a new path .No precedent could be discerned in the Sister Grand Lodge of England for either the theory or the practice The growth of our mother tongue has been almost imperceptible during the generations that have passed since the first book of Constitutions was published by Brother James Anderson Yet the interval has been long enough to impart confusion into the terminology of our history. No student can afford to be ignorant or careless of the ceaseless changes of meaning in the words of a living language The words Warrant, Constitution and Regular connote many things today which our forefathers had not in view at the Revival of 1717
WAR RELIEF ASSOCIATION, MASONIC
An early organized Body inspired bv Brother William B. Melish, Cincinnati, Ohio, who during the World War, November 14, 1914, to June 1, 1920, collected $140,011 29 for the relief of widows and orphans of Freemasons of the foreign nations and dishbursed the fund through the Masonic authorities in France, England, Belgiun, Italy, Serbia, Switzerland, and Greece, and mainly to Masonic orphanages of France, Belgium and Serbia The cost of administration was less than the savings bank interest earned and the officers and trustees served without salaries From this fund was contributed $5,000 to the rebuilding of a public hospital at Jerusalem, to which a like sum was given by the Grand Priory, Order of the Temple, England. American Knights Templar while expending $150,000 on foreign orphans, also contributed $20,783 91 to Brother Melish's fund, twenty-seven Grand Lodges gave $52,120.61; Royal Arch Masons, $27,363.68; Mystic Shrine, $29,557.91, and others were also generous (see Proceedings, Imperial Council, 1920, page 284).
WARREN, GENERAL JOSEPH.
Grand Master of Massachusetts from December 27, 1759, to June 17, 1775, a statesmen of foresight and judgment, President of the Provincial Congress and Major General in the Revolutionary War. Born June 11, 1741, Roxbury, Massachusetts; graduated from Harvard College in 1759; began the practise of medicine in 1763, noted for his success in the smallpox epidemic at Boston in 1764. In 1774, sent to the Provincial Congress to represent the City of Boston and elected President in 1775. This Provincial Congress offered him the appointment of Surgeon General, which he declined. He accepted a Commission as Major General, which was dated three days before the Battle of Bunker Hill. General Warren presided at the meeting of the Colonial Congress, June 16, 1775, which lasted almost the entire night and immediately left for Charlestown, arriving just a few moments before the first attack of the British troops at Bunker Hill.
Here Putnam and Prescott offered him command but he, refusing, seized a musket and fought in the ranks. During this encounter he received a bullet in the head and was instantly killed, being buried in a hastily prepared grave on the battle-field. Joseph Warren was Initiated September 30, 1761, in Saint Androw3 Lodge of Boston; Passed, November 2, but no record is extant of his being Raised. Earl of Dalhousie, Grand Master of Masons in Scotland, sent Brother Warren a Commission, dated May 30, 1769, appointing him Grand Master of Masons in Boston and within one hundred miles of the same. This communication was received in December of 1769. He received another Commission, 1773, from the Earl of Dumfries, then Grand Master of Scotland. This Commission was dated March 3, 1772, and extended Brother Warren's Jurisdiction to the entire Continent of America.

He was assiduous in his Masonic duties, giving constant attendance to the Committees of the Fraternity and taking care of manifold duties with a minute attention remarkable, considering his activity in public causes. The Masonic Brotherhood removed Brother Warren's body from the shallow grave in the battle-field as soon as possible after the evacuation of Boston, April 6, 1776; held a Masonic funeral service over it and placed it in a tomb in the Granary Burying Ground. Since then the body has been moved several times and now lies in Forest Hills Cemetery. King Solomon's Lodge, then of Charlestown, erected and dedicated a monument to his memory and later voted to present the land and monument to the Bunker Hill Monument Association and an exact model in marble of the original is now placed within the Bunker Hill Monument.
The completion of the monument was celebrated June 17, 1843, King Solomon's Lodge, then of Charlestown, conducting the Masonic funeral rites. On this occasion the Masonic Apron of Brother Warren was worn by Past Grand Master Benjamin Russell, a soldier of the Revolution. A statue of General Warren was inaugurated lacy the Brethren June 17, 1857, in the presence of the Grand Officers. See Bylaws of Saint Andrews Royal Arch Chapter, Boston (1866, page 85)
Proceedings, Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, 1916 (page 246); also Mackey's revised History of Freemasonry, volumes v and vi (pages 1572, 1573, 1669, 2016, 2022 and 2025), and Leaflets of Masonic Biography, by C. Moore, 1863 (pages 9 to 48).
WASHING HANDS.
See LUSTRATION.
.
WASHINGTON, A MARK MASON.
Norton Sketch of the Lodge of Antiquity, A. F. V. A. M., I. G. R. C., by J. Beamish Saul, Past Master, Past D. D. G. M. (Montreal, 1903), quotes on page 8 a letter from Lieutenant Colonel W. Lacy, who subsequently was Master of the Lodge, which was "Formerly Lodge of Soeial and Military Virtues, No. 227 G. R. I., In stituted 4th WIarch, 1752, in the 46th British Regiment, now the 2nd Battalion Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry":
"Soon after my initation, being a member of the mess committee [of the regiment], I found in the store rooms a bullock trunk with brass mountings, engraved N o. 227 L. S. M. V. I learned that it belonged to the Masons of the corps, and, being permitted to remove it to my bungalow, I found the lock had been broken, some of the jewels lost. It contained the Record book, some jewels, several books of the by-laws, the Bible and Charter, almost dilapidated. On the fly-leaf of the books of By-laws was printed: 'This Bible belonging to Lodge No. 227, was that on which Washington received a degree of Masonry, That during the war of Independence in America it was taken by the enemy, w ho returned it with a flag of truce, and again it was taken by the French in their attack on the island of Dominica, together with the Lodge jewels and mess plate of the officers, who returned it with the Lodge jewels under a {lag of truce, keeping the mess plate."' The Lodge was then in India.

Brother Beamish Saul summarizes another entry from the Lodge Minutes: "The bullock trunk containing the lodge's regalia and other effects accompanied the regiment when practical, but in some cases, for want of transport it, with other baggage had to follow. On one of these occasions the trunk fell into the hands of the Americans, but this fact coming to the knowledge of Washington, he immediately ordered it to be returned under 3 flag of truce and escorted by a guard of honor; it being also stated the regiment opened up its ranks, the guard of honor marching in, to the cheering music of the pipe and drum band. "

In 1833 Captain Lacy carried the Lodge chest with him when the 46th returned to England from India. The Lodge then went to Ireland; in 1846 it returned to Canada. In 1857 the Lodge affiliated with the Grand Lodge of Canada! changing its name to Lodge of Antiquity; in 1869 it affiliated with the Grand Lodge of Quebec.
" Of the precious volume of the Sacred Law already spoken of," writes Bro. Beamish, "the Lodge now possesses a bound photo zincographic copy [presented by Col. Lacyl of the title page and about a dozen other principal pages, and containing also certain records of the West family and others who lived in the Jersevs at that time . . . The Bible itself is now kept in the officers mess room at Newsby in a walnut case on which is engraved: 'On this Sacred Volume Washington received a Degree of Masonry' . . . Washington having been made, passed, and raised in Fredericksburg Lodge, in Virginia, at a much earlier date than when the 46th was in winter quarters near Philadelphia, tradition and the general eoncensus of opinion says it was the Mark Degree which was conferred. "

It is most reasonable to take it that the Degree was the Mark, since Washington already had been exalted to the Royal Arch at Fredericksburg in 1753; and that it was conferred at Philadelphia in or near 1777 at a time of truce, when Lodges were opened and visited by Masons from both sides of the line. "The Bible had been the property of the West family, who lived in Jerseys in 1776, many of the names of the births and deaths being` recorded up to 1769. The 46th were in the Jerseys in 1776 . . . "
WASHINGTON AT CHARLES TOWN.
To the data in the article on George Washington beginning at page 1093 should be added the tradition that he once attended and presided over Lodge meetings held in a cavern at Charles Town, W. Va. This tradition has been preserved in the Washington family, and there is no ground for questioning it.
Charles Town, then in Virginia, was a secondary home of the Washingtons when George Washington was living at Mt. Vernon. It was named after his brother Charles, who built there a home called Maudington. Samuel, another brother, built Harevrood, which is still owned by descendants (James and Dolly Madison were married in it.) The population of about 2500 contains more descendants of the Washington and Custis families than any other American community.
WASHINGTON.
Washington was separated from Oregon by Act of Congress on March 2, 1853. There were at the time four chartered Lodges in the new Territory, all of which gave allegiance to Oregon, namely, Olympia, No. 5, chartered in 1853 and the first Lodge to be established north of the Columbia River and west of the Rocky Mountains; Steilacoom, No. 8; Grand Mound, No. 21, and Washington, No. 22. A Convention was held on December 6, 1858, at which Brother Charles Byles presided to consider the formation of a Grand Lodge of Washington. At a meeting held on December 8, 1858, a Constitution was adopted and a Lodge of Master Masons was opened. Grand Officers were elected as follows; Grand Master, T. F. McElroy; Deputy Grand Master, James A. Graham; Senior Grand Warden, James Byles; Junior Grand Warden, Levi Farnsworth; Grand Treasurer, J. M. Bachelder, and Grand Secretary, Thomas M. Reed. The Grand Master was then installed and on the following day the Grand Lodge was opened with due ceremony in Ample Form.
Seattle Chapter, No. 1, was granted a Dispensation November 1, 1869, but did not have a prosperous career and its Charter was declared forfeited on August 27, 1880. Its number was given to Walla Walla Chapter which had been given a Dispensation February 13, 1871, and a Charter at the same time as Seattle Chapter on September 20, 1871. By authority of the General Grand High Priest a Convention was held at Walla Walla on October 2, 1884, by the three Chapters, Walla Walla, No. 1; Spokane, No. 2; Seattle, No. 3, and arrangements for a Grand Chapter were completed.

Tacoma Council, No. 1, at Tacoma was warranted on February 9, 1891, and chartered July 21, 1891. By Dispensation of the General Grand Master, dated May 31, 1895, a Convention was held at Tacoma to organize a Grand Council. It met on June 5, adopted a Constitution and elected Grand Officers who were installed by the Special Deputy, Elijah M. Beatty. Washington Commandery, No. 1, was organized by Dispensation issued April 19, 1882, at Walla Walla. Its Charter was dated August 23, 1883. This, with three other constituent Commanderies, Seattle, No. 2; Cataract, No. 3, and Ivanhoe, No. 4, came under the control of the Grand Commandery of the Territory when it was organized on June 2, 1887. On March 13, 1872, three Charters were granted to Bodies of the Aneient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, at Seattle, namely, Washington Lodge of Perfection, No. 1; Wasilington Chapter of Rose Croix, No. 1, and Washington Council of Kadosh, No. 1. Lawson Consistory, No. 1, was chartered, also at Seattle, on November 11, 1883.
WASHINGTON, CONGRESS OF.
A Congress of American Freemasons was convoked at the City of Washington, in the year 1822, at the call of several Grand Lodgee, for the purpose of recommending the establishment of a General Grand Lodge of the United States. The result was an unsuccessful one.