PERFECT UNION, OF VIENNA.
PERIODS OF THE GRAND ARCHITECT.
PERJURY.
PERNEITI OR PERNETY, ANTOINE JOSEPH.
PERPENDICULAR.
PERSECUTIONS.
PERSEVERANCE.
PERSEVERANCE, ORDER OF.
PERSIA.
PERPENDICULAR.
PERSECUTIONS.
PERSIAN PHILOSOPHICAL RITE.
PERSONAL MERIT.
PERU.

PERFECT UNION, OF VIENNA.
One of the very few Lodges in the world that can be compared with the famous Neuf Soeur's Lodge in Paris for the scope of its work, the brilliancy of its membership, and its national influence, was the Perfect Union Lodge of Vienna, which under the Mastership of Ignaz von Born in 1781 and afterwards, became a Masonic Society of Science and Art. Born had been made a Mason in Prague. Under his leadership there entered the portals of Perfect Union such men as: Ratschky, librettist for Mozart; Michaeler, Rector of Innsbruck University; Sauter, a professor of philosophy; Barth, the anatomist; Ecknel, founder of numismatics; Krakowsky, Minister of State; Reinhold, the philosopher, Schiller's friend, and Wieland's son-inlaw; Watteroth, the historian; Forster, who circumnavigated the earth; Zainer, one of the great sculptors of the century; the Abbe Denis, bibliographers; Leber, physician to the Empress; Joseph Haydn, the composer; and some 200 others of scarcely less eminence. The Lodge supported two periodicals.
It amassed a huge library and museum. For the botanical garden it established, its members made an expedition to (of all places !) South Carolina (did they visit Lodges while there?). It was a Lodge lecture by Born which gave Mozart the material and the inspiration for his opera "The Magic Flute." Mozart was a visitor at the time of Haydn's initiation; and one of the latter's friends and colleagues was the composer of the Austrian national anthem, Hoschka, also a Mason. Schikaneder, who wrote the libretto for "The Magic Flute" and Giesecke, his assistant, were Masons. The character, Sarastro, in the opera, was Born; and it is said that it was at the time of Born's death that Mozart, deeply moved, decidedtto write the "Flute." It was the very success of this Lodge that moved the Roman Church to launch its crusade against Austrian Masonry, for reasons understandably enough to any man who knosrs how deadly free and genuine enlightenment is to the Vatican's program.
Two interesting sources on the Lodge, on Born, and on Mozart are: Transactions: The Amertcan Lodge of Research; Vol. III, No. 2; New York; Masonic Hall; 1941-1942; page 493 ff. The Freemasons, by Eugen Lennhoff; Oxford University Press; New York; 1934; page 121 ff.
PERIODS OF THE GRAND ARCHITECT.
See Siz Periods.
PERJURY.
In the Municipal Law perjury is defined to be a wilful false swearing to a material matter, when an oath has been administered by lawful authority. The violation of vows or promissory oaths taken before one who is not legally authorized to administer them, that is to say, one who is not a magistrate, does not in law involve the crime of perjury. Such is the technical definition of the law; but the moral sense of mankind does not assent to such a doctrine, and considers perjury, as the root of the word indicates, the doing of that which one has sworn not to do, or the omitting to do that which he has sworn to do.
The old Romans seem to have taken a sensible view of the crime of perjury. Among them oaths were not often administered, and, in general, a promise made under oath had no more binding power in a court of justice than it would have had without the oath. False swearing was with them a matter of conscience, and the person who was guilty of it was responsible to the Deity alone. The violation of a promise under oath and of one not under such a form was considered alike, and neither was more liable to human punishment than the other. But perjury was not deemed to be without any kind of punishment. Cicero expressed the Roman sentiment when he said in Latin, Perjurii poena divina ezitium; humana dedecus, meaning the divine punishment of perjury is destruction; the human, infamy. Hence every oath was accompanied by an execration, or an appeal to God to punish the swearer should he falsify his oath.
"In the case of other sins," says Archbishop Sharp, "there may be an appeal made to God's mercy, yet in the case of perjury there is none; for he that is perjured hath precluded himself of this benefit because he hath braved God Almighty, and hath in effect told Him to His face that if he was foresworn he should desire no mercy." It is not right thus to seek to restrict God's mercy, but there can be no doubt that the settlement of the crime lies more with Him than with man. Freemasons look in this light on what is called the penalty; it is an invocation of God's vengeance on him who takes the vow, should he ever violate it; men's vengeance is confined to the eontempt and infamy which the foreswearer incurs (see Penalty also Oath, and Oath, Corporal).
PERNEITI or PERNETY, ANTOINE JOSEPH.
Born at Roanne, in France, in 1716. At an early age he joined the Benedictines, but in 1765 applied, with twenty-eight others, for a dispensation of his vows. A short time after, becoming disgusted with the Order, he repaired to Berlin, where Frederick the Great made him his librarian. In a short time he returned to Paris, where the Archbishop strove in vain to induce him to re-enter his monastery. The Parliament supported him in his refusal, and Pernetti continued in the world. Not long after, Pernetti became infected with the mystical theories of Swedenborg, and published a translation of his Wonders of Heaven and Hell.
He then repaired to Avignon, where, under the influence of his Swedenborgian views, he established an Academy of the Illuminati, based on the first three grades of Freemasonry, to which he added a mystical one, which he called the True Freemason.
This Rite was subsequently transferred to Montpellier by some of his disciples, and modified in form under the name of the Academy of True Freemasons. Pernetti, besides his Masonic labors at Avignod, invented several other Masonic Degrees, and to him is attributed the authorship of the Degree of Knight of the Sun, now occupying the twenty-eighth place in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. He was a very learned man and a voluminous writer of versatile talents, and published numerous works on mythology, the fine arts, theology, geography, philosophy, and the mathematical sciences, besides some translations from the Latin. He died at Valence, in Dauphiny, in the year 1800.
PERPENDICULAR.
In a geometrical sense, that which is upright and erect, leaning neither one way nor another. In a figurative and symbolic sense, it conveys the siglufication of Justice, Fortitude, Prudence, and Temperance. Justice, that leans to no side but that of Truth; Fortitude, that yields to no adverse attack; Prudence, that ever pursues the straight path of integrity; and Temperance that swerves not for appetite nor passion.
PERSECUTIONS.
Freemasonry, like every other good and true thing, has been subjected at times to suspicion, to misinterpretation, and to actual persecution. Like the Church, it has had its martyrs, who, by their devotion and their sufferings, have vindicated its truth and its purity. With the exception of the United States, where the attacks on the Institution can hardly be called persecutions—not because there was not the will, but because the power to persecute was wanting—all the persecutions of Freemasonry have, for the most part, originated with the Roman Church. "Notwithstanding," says a writer in the Freemasons Quarterly Mayanne (1851, page 141), "the greatest architectural monuments of antiquity were reared by the labors of Masonic gilds, and the Church of Rome owes the structure of her magnificent cathedrals, her exquisite shrines, and her most splendid palaces, to the skill of the wise master-builders of former ages, she has been for four centuries in antagonism to the principles inculcated by the Craft."
Leaving unnoticed the struggles of the corporations of Freemasons in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and the seventeenth centuries, we may begin the record with the persecutions to which the Order has been subjected since the revival in 1717.
One of the first persecutions to which Freemasonry in its present organization, was subjected, occurred in the year 1735, in Holland. On the 16th of October of that year, a crowd of ignorant fanatics, whose zeal had been enkindled by the denunciations of some of the clergy, broke into a house in Amsterdam, where a Lodge was accustomed to be held, and destroyed all the furniture and ornaments of the Lodge.
The States General, yielding to the popular excitement, or rather desirous of giving no occasion for its action, prohibited the future meetings of the Lodges. One, however, continuing, regardless of the edict, to meet at a private house, the members were arrested and brought before the Court of Justice. Here, in the presence of the whole city, the Masters and Wardens defended themselves with great dexterity; and while acknowledging their inability to prove the innocence of their Institution by a public exposure of their secret doctrines, they freely offered to receive and initiate any person in the confidence of the magistrates, and who could then give them information upon which they might depend, relative to the true designs of the Institution. The proposal was acceded to, and the Town Clerk was chosen. He was immediately initiated, and his report so plused his superiors that all the magistrates and principal persons of the city became members and zealow patrons of the Order.

In France, the fear of the authorities that the Freemasons concealed, within the recesses of their Lodges, designs hostile to the Government, gave occasion to an attempt in 1737, on the part of the police, to prohibit the meetings of the Lodges. But this unfavorable disposition did not long continues and the last instance of the interference of the Government with the proceedings of the Masonic Body was in June, 1745, when the members of a Lodge, meeting at the Hotel de Soissons, were dispersed, their furniture and jewels seized, and the landlord amerced in a penalty of three thousand livres

The persecutions in Germany were owing to a singular cause. The malice of a few females had been excited by their disappointed curiosity. A portion of this disposition they succeeded in communicating to the Empress, Maria Theresa, who issued an order for apprehending all the Freemasons in Vienna, when assembled in their Lodges. The measure was, however, frustrated by the good sense of the Emperor, Joseph I, who was himself a Freemason, and exerted his power in protecting his Brethren.

The persecutions of the church in Italy, and other Catholic countries, have been the most extensive and most permanent. On the 28th of April, 1738, Pope Clement XII issued the famous Bull against Freemasons whose authority is still in existence. In this Bull, the Roman Pontiff says, "We have learned, and public rumor does not permit us to doubt the truth of the report, that a certain society has been formed, under the name of Freemasons, into which persons of all religions and all sects are indiscriminately admitted, and whose members have established certain laws which bind themselves to each other, and which, in particular, compel their members, undertheseverest penalties, by virtue of an oath taken on the Holy Scriptures, to preserve an inviolable secrecy in relation to everything that passes in their meetings."

The Bull goes on to declare, that these societies have become suspected by the faithful, and that they are hurtful to the tranquillity of the state and to the safety of the soul; and after making use of the now threadbare argument, that if the actions of Freemasons were irreproachable, they would not so carefully conceal them from the light, it proceeds to enjoin all bishops, superiors, and ordinaries to punish the Freemafions "with the penalties which they deserve, as people greatly suspected of heresy, having recourse, if necessary, to the secular arm."

What this delivery to the secular arm means, we are at no loss to discover, from the interpretation given to the Bull by Cardinal Firrao in his Ediet of Publication in the beginning of the following year, namely, "that no person shall dare to assemble at any Lodge of the said society, nor be present at any of their meetings, under pain of death and confiscation of goods, the said penalty to be without hope of pardon."

The Bull of Clement met in France with no congenial spirits to obey it. On the contrary, it was the subject of universal condemnation as arbitrary and unjust, and the Parliament of Paris positively refused to enroll it. But in other Catholic countries it was better respected. In Tuscany the persecutions were unremitting- A man named Crudeli was arrested at FlorenceS thrown into the dungeons of the Inquisition, subjected to torture, and finally sentenced to a long imprisonment, on the charge of having furnished an asylum to a Masonic Lodge. The Grand Lodge of England, upon learning the circumstances, obtained his enlargement, and sent him pecuniary assistance.

Francis de Lorraine, who had been initiated at the Hague in 1731, soon after ascended the grand ducal throne, and one of the first acts of his reign was to liberate all the Freemasons who had been incarcerated by the Inquisition; and stiU further to evince his respect for the Order, he personally assisted in the constitution of several Lodges at Florence, and in other cities of his dominions.

The other sovereigns of Italy were, however, more obedient to the behests of the holy father, and persecutions continued to rage throughout the peninsula. Nevertheless, Freemasonry continued to flourish, and in 1751, thirteen years after the emission of the Bull of prohibition, Lodges were openly in existence in Tuscany, at Naples, and even in the Eternal City itself. The priesthood, whose vigilance had abated under the influence of time, became once more alarmed, and an edict was issued in 1751 by Benedict XIV, who then occupied the papal chair, renewing and enforcing the Bull which had been fulminated by Clement.

This, of course, renewed the spirit of persecution. In Spain, one Tournon, a Frenchman, was convicted of practicing the rites of Freemasonry, and after a tedious confinement in the dungeons of the Inquisition, he was finally banished from the kingdom (see I taly) .

In Portugal, at Lisbon, John Coustos, a native of Switzerland, was still more severely treated. Ele was subjected to the torture and suffered so much that he was unable to move his limbs for three months. Coustos, with two companions of his reputed crime, was sentenced to the galleys, but was finally released by the interposition of the English Ambassador.

In 1745, the Council of Berne, in Switzerland, issued a Decree prohibiting, under the severest penalties, the assemblages of Freemasons. In 1757, in Scotland, the Synod of Sterling adopted a resolution debarring an adhering Freemasons from the ordinances of religion. And, as if to prove that fanaticism is everywhere the same, in 1748 the Divan at Constantinople caused a Masonic Lodge to be demolished, its jewels and furniture seized, and its members arrested. They were discharged upon the interposition of the English Minister; but the government prohibited the introduction of the Order into Turkey.

America has not been free from the blighting influence of this demon of fanaticism. But the exciting scenes of anti-Masonry are almost too recent to be treated by the historian with coolness or impartiality. The political party to which this spirit of persecution gave birth was the most abject in its principles, and the most unsuccessful in its efforts, of any that our times have seen. It has passed away; the clouds of anti-Masonry have been, we trust, forever dispersed, and the bright sun of Freemasonry, once more emerging from that temporary eclipse, is beginning to bless our land with the invigorating heat and light of its meridian rays (see Anti-Masonry, Anti-Masonic Party, and Anti-Masonic Books).
PERSEVERANCE.
A virtue inculcated, by a peculiar symbol in the Third Degree, in reference to the acquisition of knowledge, and especially the knowledge of the True Word (see Patience).
PERSEVERANCE, ORDER OF.
An Adoptive Order established at Paris, in 1771, by several nobles and ladies. It had but little of the Masonic character about it; and, although at the time of its creation it excited considerable sensation, it existed but for a brief period. It was instituted for the purpose of rendering services to humanity. Ragon says (Tuileur General, page 92) that there was kept in the archives of the Order a quarto volume of four hundred leaves, in which was registered ad the good deeds of the Brethren and Sisters. This volume is entitled Ioure d'Honneur de l'Ordre de la Perseuerance. Ragon intimates that this document is still in existence. Thory (Foundation of the Grand Orient, page 383) says that there was much mystification about the establishment of the Order in Paris. Its institutors contended that it originated from time immemorial in Poland, a pretension to which the King of Poland lent his sanction. Many persons of distinction, and among them Madame de Genlis, were deceived and became its members.
PERSIA.
A kingdom of West Asia. No Lodges have been constituted in Persia by the Grand Lodge of England although Sir Gore Ousely, Ambassador to the Shah of Persia in 1810, was appointed Provincial Grand Master for that country. The Grand Orient of France, however, controls one Lodge at Teheran, Le Reveil de l'Iran, meaning in French The AuJakening of Persia. Iran, or Eran, as it is sometimes spelled, is the official designation of the Persian Kingdom and is derived from Aryana, the country of the Aryans, who were the Sanscrit-speaking immigrants to Persia, from India, and the name was thus adopted from ancient times by the Persians.

Several prominent Persians have been Freemasons. Askeri Khan, Ambassador of the Shah, at Paris, was initiated in 1808 and the Mirza Abul Hassan Khan in 1810. According to the Freemason of June 28, 1873 nearly all the members of the Court of Teheran were Freemasons.

On November 24, 1808, when Askeri Khan, the Ambassador of Persia near the Court of France, was received into the Order at Paris by the Mother Lodge of the Philosophic Scottish Rite, he presented his sword, a pure Damascus blade, to the Lodge, with these remarks: I promise you, gentlemen, friendship, fidelity, and es teem. I have been told, and I eannot doubt it, that Freemasons were virtuous, eharitable, and full of love and attachment for their sovereigns. Permit me to make you a present worthy of true Frenehmen. Receive this sabre, which has served me in twenty-seven battles. May this act of homage convince you of the sentiments with which you have inspired me, and of the gratification that I feel in belonging to your Order.
The Ambassador subseqdently seems to have taken a great interest in Freemasonry while he remained in France, and consulted with the Worshipful Master of the Lodge on the.subject of establishing a Lodge and Accepted Scottish Rite. He was a very learned man and a voluminous writer of versatile talents, and published numerous worts on mythology, the fine arts, theology, geography, philosophy, and the mathematical sciences, besides some translations from the Latin. He died at Valence, in Dauphiny, in the year 1800.
PERPENDICULAR.
In a geometrical sense, that which is upright and erect, leaning neither one way nor another. In a figurative and symbolic sense, it conveys the signification of Justice, Fortitude, Prudence, and Temperance. Justice, that leans to no side but that of Truth; Fortitude, that yields to no adverse attack; Prudence, that ever pursues the straight path of integrity; and Temperance that swerves not for appetite nor passion.
PERSECUTIONS.
Freemasonry, like every other good and true thing, has been subjected at times to Suspection, to misinterpretation, and to actual persecution. Like the Church, it has had its martyrs, who, by their devotion and their sufferings, have vindicated its truth and its purity. With the exception of the United States, where the attacks on the Institution can hardly be called persecutions—not because there was not the will, but because the power to persecute was wanting—all the persecutions of Freemasonry have, for the most part, originated with the Roman Church. "Notwithstanding," says a writer in the Freemasons Quarterly Magazine (1851, page 141), "the greatest architectural monuments of antiquity were reared by the labors of Masonic gilds, and the Church of Rome owes the structure of her magnificent cathedrals, her exquisite shrines, and her most splendid palaces, to the skill of the wise master-builders of former ages, she has been for four centuries in antagonism to the principles inculcated by the Craft."
Leaving unnoticed the struggles of the corporations of Freemasons in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and the seventeenth centuries, we may begin the record with the persecutions to which the Order has been subjected since the revival in 1717.

One of the first persecutions to which Freemasonry in its present organization, was subjected, occurred in the year 1735, in Holland. On the 16th of October of that year, a crowd of ignorant fanatics, whose zeal had been enkindled by the denunciations of some of the clergy, broke into a house in Amsterdam, where a Lodge was accustomed to be held, and destroyed all the furniture and ornaments of the Lodge.
The States General, yielding to the popular excitement, or rather desirous of giving no occasion for its action, prohibited the future meetings of the Lodges. One, however, continuing, regardless of the edict, to meet at a private house, the members were arrested and brought before the Court of Justice. Here, in the presence of the whole city, the Masters and Wardens defended themselves with great dexterity; and while acknowledging their inability to prove the innocence of their Institution by a public exposure of their secret doctrines, they freely offered to receive and initiate any person in the confidence of the magistrates, and who could then give them information upon which they might depend, relative to the true designs of the Institution. The proposal was acceded to, and the Town Clerk was chosen. He was immediately initiated, and his report so pleased his superiors that all the magistrates and principal persons of the city became members and zealous patrons of the Order.

In France, the fear of the authorities that the Freemasons concealed, within the recesses of their Lodges, designs hostile to the Government, gave occasion to an attempt in 1737, on the part of the police, to prohibit the meetings of the Lodges. But this unfavorable disposition did not long continues and the last instance of the interference of the Government with the proceedings of the Masonie Body was in June, 1745, when the members of a Lodge, meeting at the Hotel de Soissons, were dispersed, their furniture and jewels seized, and the landlord amereed in a Penalty of three thousand livres.
The persecutions in Germany were owing to a singular cause. The malice of a few females had been excited by their disappointed curiosity. A portion of this dispositionthey succeeded in communicating to the Empress, Maria Theresa, who issued an order for apprehending all the Freemasons in Vienna, when assembled in their Lodges. The measure was, however, frustrated by the good sense of the Emperor, Joseph I, who was himself a Freemason, and exerted his power in protecting his Brethren.

The persecutions of the church in Italy, and other Catholic countries, have been the most extensive and most permanent.
On the 28th of April, 1738, Pope Clement XII issued the famous Bull against Freemasons whose authority is still in existence. In this Bull, the Roman Pontiff says, "We have learned, and public rumor does not permit us to doubt the truth of the report, that a certain society has been formed, under the name of Freemasons, into which persons of all religions and all sects are indiscriminately admitted, and whose members have established certain laws which bind themselves to each other, and which, in particular, compel their members, undertheseverest penalties, by virtue of an oath taken on the Holy Seriptures, to preserve an inviolable secrecy in relation to everything that passes in their meetings." The Bull goes on to declare, that these societies have become suspected by the faithful, and that they are hurtful to the tranquillity of the state and to the safety of the soul; and after making use of the novf threadbare argument, that if the actions of Freemasons were irreproachable, they would not so carefully conceal them from the light, it proceeds to enjoin all bishops, superiors, and ordinaries to punish the Freemasons "with the penalties which they deserve, as people greatly suspected of heresy, having recourse, if necessary, to the secular arm."

What this delivery to the secular arm means, we are at no 1088 to discover, from the interpretation given to the Bull by Cardinal Firrao in his Ediet of Publication in the beginning of the following year, namely, "that no person shall dare to assemble at any Lodge of the said society, nor be present at any of their meetings, under pain of death and confiscation of goods, the said penalty to be without hope of pardon."
The Bull of Clement met in France with no congenial spirits to obey it. On the contrary, it was the subject of universal condemnation as arbitrary and at ispahan. Thory, who gives this account (Acta Latomorum i, page 237) does not tell us whether the project of an Ispahan Lodge was ever executed. But it is probable that on his return home the Ambassador introduced among his friends some knowledge of the Institution, and impressed them with a favorable opinion of it. At all events, the Persians in later times do not seem to have been ignorant of its existence.
Holmes, in his sketches on the Shores of the Casptan gives the following as the Persian idea of Freemasonry:

In the morning we received a visit from the Governor, who seemed rather a dull person, though very polite and civil. He asked a great many questions regarding the Feramoosh Khoneh, as they called the Freemasons' Hall in London- which is a complete mastery to all the Persians who have heard of it. Very often, the first question we have been asked is, "What do they do at the Feramoosh Khoneh? What is it?" They generally believe it to be a most wonderful place, where a man may acquire in one day the wisdom of a thousand vears of study; but every one has his own peculiar conjectures concerning it. Some of the Persians who went to England became Freemasons- and their friends complain that they will not tell what they savv at the Hall, and cannot conceive why they should all be so uneommunieative.

We have, from the London Freemason (of June 28, 1873) this further account; but the conjecture as to the time of the introduction of the Order unfortunately wants confirmation:

Of the Persian officers who are present in Berlin pursuing military studies and making themselves aequainted with Prussian military organization and arrangements, one belongs to the Masonie Order. He is a Mussulman. He seems to have spontaneously sought recognition as a member of the Craft at a Berlin Lodge, and his claim was allowed only after such an examination as satisfied the Brethren that he was one of the Brethren.
From the statement of this Persian Freemason it appears that nearly all the members of the Persian Court belong to the mystic Order, even as German Freemasonry enjoys the honor of counting the Emperor and Crown Prince among its adherents. The appearance of this Mohammedan Freemason in Berlin seems to have excited a little surprise among some of the Brethren there, and the surprise would be natural enough to persons not aware of the extent to which Freemasonry has been diffused over the earth. Account for it as one may, the truth is certain that the mysterious Order was estab~ lished in the Orient many ages ago. Nearly all of the old Mohammedan buildings in India, such as tombs, mosques, etch are marked with the Masonie symbols, and many of these structures, still perfect, were built in the time of the Mogul Emperor Akbar, who died in 1605. Thus Freemasonry must have been introduced into India from htiddle Asia by the Mohammedans hundreds of years ago.
Since then there was an initiation of a Persian in the Lodge Clemente Amitie at Paris. There is a Lodge at Teheran, of which many native Persians are members.
PERSIAN PHILOSOPHICAL RITE.
A Rite which its founders asserted was established in 1818, at Erzerum, in Persia, and which was introduced into France in the year 1819. It consisted of seven Degrees, as follows:
1. Listening Apprentice;
2. Fellow Craft, Adept, Esquire of Benevolence;
3. Master, Enight of the Sun;
4. Architect of all Rites, Enight of the Philosophy of the Heart;
5. Enight of Eclecticism and of Truth;
6. Master Good Shepherd;
7. Venerable Grand Elect.
This Rite never contained many members, and has been long extinct.
PERSONAL MERIT.
In the Charges, 1723, we find "All preferment among Masons is grounded upon real worth and personsl merit only, that so the Lords may be well served, the Brethren not put to shame nor the Royal Craft despised. Therefore no Master or Warden is chosen by seniority, but for his merit" (Constituttons, 1723, page 51).
PERU.
A republic of South America. There is an old belief that the French brought Freemasonry into Peru in 1807 and that the work of the various Lodges then formed was ended in 181?; by the Church. This however, is little more than a tradition. The Republic was declared independent in 1820. In 1825 a visit was paid by General Valero representing the Grand Orient of Colombia at Santa Fe de Bogota to legalize the Lodges and Chapters already working there, the first of which, at Lima, had begun work in 1821.
In 1830 a Supreme Council of the Ancient and Aecepted Scottish Rite was established at Lima by Jose Maria Monson, a Roman Catholic Chaplain.
A Grand Lodge with Thomas Ripley Eldridge as Grand Master was soon opened. A Constitution was adopted on August 11, 1831, and the name changed to Grand Orient of Peru. Work was interrupted by political troubles but on November 1, 1848, the Craft had 80 increased in strength that the Grand Orient was re-established.

A Grand National Orient of Peru was organized on July 13, 1852. In 1857 three Lodges, Concordia Universel, Estrella Polar and Virtud y Unitad, withdrew and with others formed a Grand Lodge at Lima on November 20, 1859. Again in 1860 there was trouble with the Supreme Council and several more seceded, joined the Grand Lodge and formed a Grand Orient and a Supreme Council by authority of the Grand Orient of Colombia. In 1863, however, this Grand Body disappeared.
The Supreme Council then revived the Grand Orient in 1875 and again in 1881. At that time five Lodges withdrew from the Supreme Council and finally established at Lima the Grand Lodge of Peru in March, 1882.
The Grand Lodge of Scotland has two Lodges at Callao, two at Lima, and one at Cerro de Pasco. The Grand Orient of Italy is also represented at Lima by the Stella d'Italia Lodge, Italian Star.