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The third fundamental principle of Judaism, or the Sign upon the Door-post. The precept is founded upon the command, "And thou shalt write them upon the posts of thy house, and on thy gates" (Deuteronomy vi, 4-9; xi, 13-21). The doorposts must be those of a dwelling; synagogues are excluded. The Karaite Jews affix Mezuzas to synagogues, and not to private houses. The Mezuza is constructed as follows: the two above-mentioned portions of Scripture are written on ruled vellum prepared according to Rabbinical rules, then rolled and fitted into a metallic tube. The word Shaddai, meaning the Almighty, is written on the outside of the roll, and can be read, when in the tube, through a got. The Mezuza is then nailed at each end on the right-hand door-post, while the following prayer is beingsaid: "Blessed art thou, O Lord our God! King of the Universe, who hath sanctified us with His laws, and commanded us to fix the Mezuza." Under the word Shaddai some Jews write the three angelic names Coozu, Bemuchsaz, Coozu. To these some pray for success in business. The Talmud esti mates the virtue of the Talith, the Phylacteries, and the Mezuza in the following terms: "Whosoever has the phylacteries bound to his head and arm, and the fringes thrown over his garments, and the Mezuza fixed on his door-post, is safe from sin; for these are excellent memorials, and the angels secure him from sin; as it is written, 'The angel of the Lord encamped round about them that fear Him, and delivereth them' " (Psalm xxxiv, 7).
The Hebrew word, meaning Who is like unto God. The chief of the seven archangels. He is the leader of the celestial host, as Lucifer is of the infernal spirits, and the especial protector of Israel. He is prominently referred to in the Twenty eighth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, or Iinight of the Sun.
Zion Lodge was established by Warrant, dated April 27, 1764, from Provincial Grand Master George Harrison of New York. It was numbered 448 on the Register of England and No. 1 of Detroit. On September 3, 1806, this Lodge was reorganized and the original Warrant of 1764 was surrendered to the Grand Lodge of New York. The Installation took place on July 6, 1807. Having for feited its Charter during the War with England, it was granted a new one as No. 62 on March 14, 1816, but by a rearrangement of numbers in 1819 it became Lodge No. 3. A Convention met on June 24, 1826, to organize a Grand Lodge. Representatives of Zion, No. 3; Detroit, No. 337; Minomanie, Nu. 374, and Monroe, No. 375, were present and Oakland, No. 343, joined later. On June 28 a Constitution was adopted and on July 31 Grand Officers were elected and installed. During the Anti-Masonic agitation the Craf in this district almost died out. In 1837, however, Michigan became a State and the increase of popula tion caused a revival of Freemasonry. The Grand Lodge of Michigan was again constituted on September 17, 1844, and Grand Officers were duly elected.

The members of Zion Lodge formed a Chapter called Monroe Chapter, No. 1, at Detroit which was granted a Dispensation by the General Grand High Priest, DeWitt Clinton, on December 3, 1818. The Chapters in Michigan were authorxzed in January, 1848, by the General Grand Scribe to meet and organize a Grand Chapter for the State. Representatives of Monroe Chapter, No. 1; St. Joseph Valley, No. 2, and Jackson Chapter, No. 3, were present at a Convention held on March 9, 1848, and Grand Officers were elected and installed.

Monroe Council was formed by the members of Monroe Chapter, No. 1, at Detroit. On May 13, 1856, at the annual assembly of the Grand Council of Connecticut, it was reported that a Dispensation had been granted to Monroe Council, No. 23, at Detroit. A meeting of the Council was held on May 19, 1856, to receive the Dispensation and a Code of ByLaws was adopted. Representatives from Monroe, St. Clair and Pontiac Councils, all of which possessed Charters dated May 12, 1857, met on January 13, 1858, at Detroit and formed a Grand Council. Detroit, No. 1, at Detroit was the first Commandery to be organized in Michigan. Its Dispensation was issued November 1,1850, and its Charter, September 19, 1853. Six Commanderies sent representatives to Detroit on January 15, 1857, and, by Warrant issued February 12, 1857, instituted the Grand Commandery of Micbigan. The Grand Master of the General Grand Encampment was present and installed the Grand Officers on January 11, 1858 The beginning of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in Michigan was at Detroit. On May 26, 1861, the Carson Council of Princes of Jerusalem was chartered. On May 22, 1862, the Detroit-Carson Lodge of Perfection, the Mount Olivet Chapter of Rose Croix, and the Michigan Consistory were established.
See Man.
These are supposed by the best historians to extend from the time Theodoric liberated Rome, 493, to the end of the fifteenth century, the important events being the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the discovery of America in 1492, and the doubling of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497. This period of ten centuries is one of great importance to the MaBoniC student, because it embraces within its scope events intimately connected with the history of the Order such as the diffusion throughout Europe of the Roman Colleges of Artifioers, the establishment of the architectural school of Como, the rise of the Gilds, the organization of the Building Corporations of Germany, and the Company of Freemasons of England, as well as many customs and usages which have descended with more or less modification to the modern Institution.
There vere three stories of side chambers built around the Temple on three sixles; what, therefore, is ealled in the authorized aversion a middle Clamber was really the middle story of those three. The Hebrew word is yatsang. They are thus described in First Kings vi, 5, 6, 03: And against the wall of the house he built chambers round about, against the walls of the house round about, both of the temple and of the oracle: and he made chambers round about. The nethermost chamber was five cubits broad and the middle was six cubits broad, and the third was seven cubits broad: for without in the wall of the house he made narrowed rests round about, that the beams should not be fastened in the walls of the house. The door for the middle chamber was in the right side of the house: and they went up with winding stairs into the middle chamber, and out of the middle into the third.

These chambers, after the Temple was completed, served for the accommodation of the priests when upon duty; in them they deposited their vestments and the sacred vessels- But the knowledge of the purpose to which the middle chamber was appropriated while the Temple was in the course of construction, is only preserved in Masonic tradition. This tradition is, however, altogether mythical and symbolical in its character, and belongs to the symbolism of the Winding Stairs, which see.
Preston's Illustrations of Freemasonry refers with an excellent choice of language to the beauties of nature and the more important truths of morality. The second section of this Monitor provides employment for leisure hours, traces science from its original source and by draving attention to the sum of perfection we may, as Brother Preston tells us, contemplate with admiration the wonderful worlds of the Creator. This composition (found on pages al to 60 of the 1812 edition) has been restated in a most practical form by Brother Charles C. Hunt, Grand Secretary, Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. His essay runs as follows:

This journey to the Middle Chamber, like many of the ceremonies of Freemasonry, is based upon one of the legends connected with the building of King Solomon's Temple. It is said that there were 80,000 Fellow Crafts who labored in the mountains and the quarries. Here it vas their duty to prepare materials to be used in the erection of the Temple. At this task they worked six days and then received their wages. On the evening of the sixth day those who had proved themselves worthy by a strict attention to their duties, were entrusted with certain mysterious words, signs, and grips, by means of which thev were enabled to work their way to the Middle Chamber of the Temple to receive their wages. At the same time King Solomon, accompanied by his confidential officers, repaired to the Middle Chamber to meet them. His secretary he placed near his person, the Junior Warden at the outer door, and the Senior Warden at the inner door, with strict instructions to suffer none to enter who were not in possession of the words, signs and grips previously established, so that when they gained admission he knew they had been faithful workmen and ordered their names enrolled as such entitling them to wages.
He then admonished them of the reverence due the great and sacred name of Deity, and suffered them to depart for rest and refreshment until the time should come for them to resume their labors on the first day of the following week. They did not work upon the seventh day, because in sis days God created the heaven and the earth and rested upon the seventh. The seventh day, therefore, our ancient Brethren conseerated as a day of rest from their labors, thereby erNoying frequent opportunities to contemplate the glorious works of creation and zdore their great Creator. We, also, my Brother, follow our usual vocations six days of the week and rest upon the seventh. We have now symbolically been working for six days. have been found faithful and are in possession of the same mysterious words signs and grips us were our ancient Brethren. We are therefore about to endeavor to work our way to the place representing the Unriddle (Chamber of King Solomon's Temple where. if we succeed in gaining admission, I have no doubt we will alike be received and rewarded, as were they.

This. my Brother. is a symbol of our life on earth. As Fellow Crafts. we are laboring in the quarries of the world. preparing ourselves as living stones for that Spiritual Temple, that house not made with hands eternal in the heavens. The signs. words, and grips with which we are entrusted symbolize the means by which we are known as faithful workmen. They are tokens of that noble character which ean only be acquired by faithful service.
The reward of such service is a constant acquisition of knowledge and continual growth in eharaeter represented by the weekly payment of wages in the Middle Chamber. Before we can enter the Middle Chamber we must pass through an outer and an inner door. At the outer door the Junior Warden will demand of you the pass and token of the pass of a Fellow Craft which symbolize the characteristics by which we are judged by our fellow men. They are the signs which give us our reputation with our Brethren. At the inner door the Senior Warden will demand the grip and word of a Fellow Craft, the symbols of those deep seated characteristies called characters The pass and token can be assumed. They are outward manifestations only- but the grip and word, are the inner secret of the soul and cannot be imitated or assumed by those who do not actually have them.
The token represents the opinion of men, the word is the knowledge of God. In the legend of King Solomon's Temple, the unfaithful workman sometimes ascended to the inner door, but as he did not have the mystic signs and tokens entrusted only to the faithful craftsmen, he could not enter the place of wages So you, though you have entered our mystic circle and may mount to all the grades of honor we can bestow may not acquire those celestial signs and tokens by which alone you can pass the inner door of the Spiritual Temple where the wages of the soul are received by the worthy craftsmen. In this journey to the Middle Chamber we will impart to you a fund of valuable information and in your continued progress through the ceremonies of our Order we will instruct you in many Masonic secrets which will enable you to pass our outer door, the door of the material lodge; but the signs and tokens which will take you through the inner door of the spiritual lodge to the Middle Chamber of nourishment, refreshment and joy can only be acquired by daily putting into practise the principles which we here teach. If you fail to so acquire them, on you and you alone will rest the responsibility for your failure. You come here to learn the secrets of Masonry, which when properly applied, lead to the inner secrets of the soul. There are two kinds of Masonry, Operative and Speculative.
By Operative Masonry we allude to a proper application of the useful rules of architectures whence a structure derives figure strength and beauty. By it we learn to apply the materials and forces of Nature to the construction of material edifices and to maintain a due proportion and a just correspondence between all the parts of the structure.

By Speculative Masonry we allude to a proper application of the useful rules of the Temple Builder whence our souls will derive a spiritual strength and beauty. By it we learn to subdue our passions, act upon the square, keep a tongue of good report, maintain secrecy and practice charity. It is so far interwoven with religion as to lay us under obligations to pay that rational homage to the Deity, which at once constitutes our duty and our happiness.
We work as Speculative Masons only, but our ancient Brethren worked in Operative as well as in Speculative Masonry. The difference between the Operative and the Speculative Mason is not determined by the tools with which he works, but by the difference in the materials with which he builds. We use the same tools and implements as did our ancient Brethren, but to us the gauge, gavel, square, level and plumb are not merely the working tools of an Operative Mason's art, but visible, tangible emblems of great moral truths and duties. The Operative Mason's vork, being constructed of perishable materials must sooner or later erunlble into dust, but the Speculative Mnson is a moral builder for eternity, fitting immortal nature for that spiritual building which shall endure when earth's proudest monumental piles shall have crumbled, and its glory and greatness shall have been forgotten.
When the vast sun shall veil his golden light,
Deep into the gloom of everlasting night,
When wild destructive flames shall wrap the skies,
When ruin triumphs and when nature dies,
Man shall alone the wreck of worlds survive,
Unhurt amidst the war of elements.

As Speculative Masons, therefore, let us imitate our ancient Brethren and proceed on our way to the Middle Chamber. At the very beginning of our journey we must pass through an aisle between two pillars which respectively represent the porch of the Temple and the two brazen pillars which King Solomon placed at its entrance. The pillar on the left hand is called Boaz and denotes strength; the one on the right hand is called Jachin and denotes establishment. Together they allude to the promise of God to David that he would establish his kingdom in strength. King Solomon is said to have erected these pillars in commemoration of the pillar of cloud and the pillar of fire which guided the Israelites in their journey through the wilderness. The right hand or south pillar represents the pillar of cloud and the left hand or north pillar that of fire. Thus they were memorials of God's repeated promises to His people, and bus the Children of Israel passed through the porch to the Temple, they were continually reminded of the abundant promises of their God and inspired mith confidence in His continued protection and support. So to us as Masons, they represent the ever sustaining power of our God supporting and directing us in the great work we have to do. As they were placed at the entrance of the Temple so are they placed at the beginning of our journey to the Middle Chamber to remind us that we are passing from the world of the seen and temporal, the material world, to the realm of the unseen and eternal, the spiritual realities.
The Temple pillars are said to have been east by the architect of the Temple, H. A. on the banks of the Jordan, in the clay-ground between Succoth and Zarthan. In this respect they are representatives of Space and Time, which were east by the great Architect of the Universe in the clay ground of the brain and placed in the porchway of human consciousness, where they constitute the border between material and spiritual sciences We
All are architects of fate
Working in these walls of time,
Some with massive deeds and great,
Some with ornaments of rhyme.

And the structure that we raise,
Time is with materials filled;
Our to-days and yesterdays
Are the blocks with which we build.
Build to-day, then, strong and sure,
With a firm and ample base;
And ascending and secure
Shall to-morrow find its place.

The pillars of the Temple are said to have been east hollow, the better to serve as safe repositories for the archives of Masonry against all conflagrations and inundations. Space and time are hollow. We are dwelling within their wails, and though floods may o'erwhelm and fire consume the material work of our hands yet will the record of a noble character be forever safe in the repository of God's infinite love and care. The Temple pillars were each I8 cubits in height and avere adorned with chapiters of five cubits. The chapiters were adorned with lily-work. net-work and pomegranate, denoting Peace. Unity and Plenty. The lily from its extreme whiteness and purity deriotes Peace.; the net-work from the intimate connection of its parts, Unity; and the pomegranate from the exuberance of its seeds, Plenty. 'I'o us the chapiters speak of the unity which should ever distinguish our fraternity, encouraging us to live in peace and harmony with each other and with all men
The chapiters were further adorned with globes on their tops, representing the terrestrial and celestial spheres, and teach us to so regulate our lives that when we pass from earth, the terrostri.ll, it male be to that other and better world the celestial. Thus the globes are two artificial spherical bodies and denote the universality of Masonry.

Between the pillars we see a path, representing the path of life. This path is paved with checkered blocks of alternate white and Black to indicate the nature of this life, checkered with light and darkness. prosperity and adversity calm and storms good and evil. Taking this path me come to a flight of winding stairs which represent tile means by which we climb from the depths of our earthly natule to that higher life in the temple of our God. As you stand here, my Brother, you represent a man just starting out on the journey of life. with a great task before him, that of self-development. If you are faithful in this task you will receive the remard of the noble upright character, as designed by the great Architect of the Universe Upon your moral, spiritual and Masonic trestle-board. You will notice that this flight of winding stairs has three divisions of respectively three five and seven steps representing life under three aspects each higher nobel and greater than the preceding.

The first division, consisting of three steps, alludes to the three symbolic Degrees of Masonry, L. A. F. C. and M. M. and also the three principal Stages of hunman life, infancy, manhood, and age, the period assigned to us for the completion of our spiritual Temple. As such it is a constant reminder that we should employs our time wisely and well. " so teach us to number our days that we man apply our hearts unto wisdomm as the prayer of a distinguished Mason of the olden time. and it should be the daily prayer of each one of us. Let us take the three steps.

This brings us to the second division consisting of five steps and alludes to the five senses and to the five orders of architecture. The five senses may be defined as man's faculty of receiving impressions and are the means by which he receives his knowledge of the material world. They are hearing, seeing, feeling, smelling and tasting. Their proper use enables us to form just and accurate notions of the operations of nature, to provide sustenance for our bodies, to ward off danger to enjoy the blessings which God has given us, and contribute to the happiness and comfort of others. Their improper use, tends to impair our faculties and weakens our power to grow and accomplish. Masonry urges us to make proper use of these senses and thereby to attain to the fullness of true manhood. Of these senses the three most revered by Seasons are hearing, seeing and feeling, for by hearing we hear the word, by seeing we see the sign and by feeling we recognize the grip whereby one Mason may K A I T D A W A IT L. These three are most closely allied to spiritual truths, for by hearing we hear the voices of duty; by seeing we see the truth. and by feeling we recognize the grip of brotherly lover and affection whereby one Mason may know another in the darkness of adversity as well as in the light of prosperity.

By order in architecture, is meant a system of all the members, proportions and ornaments of columns and pilasters, or, it is a regular arrangement of the projecting parts of a building, which, united with those of a column, form a beautiful, perfect and complete whole.
The five orders of architecture are Tuscan, Doric, lonic, Corinthian and Composit. Each is distinguished from the others by the shape of its column and the variety and richness of its ornamentation. To us as Speculative Seasons these orders in conection with the five senses teach the important, lesson that we should so develop our faculties that each, according to the needs of his own character, may plan, support and adorn his spiritual Temple with the columns of Divine knowledge, power and love. The three orders most revered by Masons are the lonic, Doric and Corinthian, since they represent Wisdom, Strength and Beauty. The Doric order on amount of its robust solidity and massive grandeur.
combined with harmonious simplicity, represents the pillar of Strength. The Corinthian, the richest of the five orders. is deemed a masterpiece of art and represents the pillar of Beauty. The Ionic, requiring great judgment and skill in its construction. and combining the strength of the Doric with the beauty of the Corinthian. represents the pillar of Wisdom. Let us take the five steps.
This brings us to the third division of the stairway consisting of sex en steps. It alludes to the seven liberal arts and sciences, (Grammar, Rhetoric, Logic, Arithmetic, Geometry. Music and Astronomy. These sciences are representative of universal knowledge and the symbol of the foundations Logic of the superstructure, and Rhetoric the ornament of the temple of language. Arithmetic represents the foundation, (geometric the superstructure and Astronomy the sublime ornamentation of our intellectual temple. Grummar, Rhetoric and Logic furnish the soul with the key to all language, while Arithmetic Geometry and Astronomy open to him the secret laws of nature. Music is the connecting link between them, the medium giving the natural world communication with the spiritual. Let us take the seven steps.

And now, my Brother, having reached the summit of our symbolic stairway, let us pause a moment to consider the lesson of life which Masonry would teach you. Thee three steps represent the period of our life on earth, divided into three stages of infancy, manhood and age. The five steps our human faculties applied to the construction of material edifices symbolized by the five orders of architecture, while the seven steps symbolize the complete circle of human learning and the full development of man's soul. the winding stairway as a whole is a symbol of progress and irrstruction, teaching you that as a Mason you must not remain in the ignorance of irrational childhood, if you would be worthy of your vocation, but that your destiny as an immortal being requires you to ascend step by step, until you reach the summit, where the completed treasures of truth await you. The stairs are winding to represent the circuitous way by which we must go to investigate the many sides of truth. Masonry points the way, but you must travel the road yourself. Our symbolic stairsvay was easy for you to ascend, but the heights which you must climb in actual life will be hard to reach and the task is great; yet remember the reward will be magnificent; your wages will well repay the effort.
See also Dew Drop Lecture and Liberal Arts and Sciences.
This word has two references of interest to us.
1. In pure Latin, miles means a soldier; but in Medieval Latin the word was used to designate the military knights whose institution began at that period. Thus a Knight Templar was called Miles Templarius, and a Knight Banneret, Miles Bannerettus. The pure Latin word eques, which Signifies a knight in Rome, was never used in that sense in the Middle ages (see Knighthood).
2. The Seventh Degree of the Rite of African Architects.
Lodges established in an army. They are of an early date, having long existed in the British army. The earliest Warrant creating a Traveling or Movable Lodge was issued in 1732 by the Grand Lodge of Ireland to the then First Foot, now the Royal Scots. The Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1743 established a Military Lodge in the FiftyFifth Foot and the first English Military Lodge was set up or erected in 1750 and attached to the ThirtyFirst Foot. The Grand Lodge of the Antients was particularly active in such work and at the close of 1789 this Body had granted forty-nine army Warrants. The Grand Lodge of Ireland has always had more such Lodges than the English or Scotch. In 1813 there were one hundred and twenty-three under the Irish Jurisdiction. At that time the moderns had fifteen, the Antients sixty-two and Scotland eighteen. These numbers have been greatly reduced and Brother Hawkins in 1908 pointed out there were then only two on the Register of the United Grand Lodge of England, seven under the Grand Lodge of Ireland and none under Scotland.

In the United States of America, the first Lodge of this kind of which we have any record was one the Warrant for which was granted by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, in 1738, to Abraham Savage, to be used in the expedition against Canada. A similar one was granted by the same authority, in 1756, to Richard Gridley, for the expedition against Crown Point. In both of these instances the Warrants were of a general character, and might rather be considered as Deputations, as tllev authorized Savage and Gridley to congregate Freemasons into one or more Lodges. In i779, the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania granted a Warrant to Colonel Proctor, of the artillery, to open a Military Lodge, which in the Warrant is called a Movable Lodge. In the Civil War in the United States between 1861 and 1865, many Military Lodges were established on both sides; but it is questionable whether they had a good effect. They met, certainly with much opposition in many Jurisdictions. In the Spanish War and in the World War, Lodges were empowered to work the armies.
In England, the system of Military Lodges is regulated by special provisions of the Grand Lodge Constitution. They are strictly limited to the purposes for which the Warrants were granted, and no new Lodge can be established in a regiment without the concurrence of the commanding officer.. If the military Body to which a Lodge is attached be disbanded or reduced, the Warrant must be given up, or exchanged for a Warrant for a Civil Lodge. They cannot make Freemasons of any civilian nor any military person below the rank of Corporal, except as Sermng Brethren, or by Dispensation; and they are strictly enjoined not to interfere with the Masonic Jurisdiction of any country in which they may be stationed.

Military Lodges also exist on the Continent of Europe. We find one at Berlin, in Prussia, as far back as 1775, under the name of the Military Lodge of the Blazing Star, of which Wadzeck, the Masonic writer, was the orator.
J. H. Manners Howe contributed to the Graphic (December 11, 1909, see also Transactions, Leeds Installed Masters Association, volume vi, page ''29) the following paper on Fighting Freemasons, the Influence of the Brotherhood in War:
The annals of Military Freemasonry may be described as a veritable romance of "goodwill upon earth." This is not to deny to the civil records of the Craft the possession of an abundant fund of varied interest on the same excellent lines both in their archaeological and historical aspects. But, after all, the warrior members of the Brotherhood are those who have always carried its influence into what are still the most strenuous paths of romance-those of military adventure.

The earliest recorded names of English Freemasons, which date from the first half of the seventeenth century, are those of two soldiers. One of these was Captain Elias Ashmole, of Warrington, in Lancashire, who belonged to Lord Ashley's Regiment in the King's Service; the other being Colonel Henry Mainwaring, a soldier of the Parliament, whose name frequently appears in the annals of the Civil War. In Scotland, where Masonic records go back to an older time, there are many earlier names of warrior members among chief and clansman alike. Moreover, on the rolls of the Lodge of Edinburgh, there is an interesting record curiously testifying to the diligence with which Freemasons have pursued their craft even amidst the stress of warlike operations.

In 1641, the Scottish Army, having crossed the Tweed, defeated the Royalist forces at Newburn and seized Newcastle. The minutes of the Edinburgh Lodge record that while in occupation of this town the admission took place of " Mr. the Right Honerabell Mr. Robert Moray, General Quartermaster to the Armie off Scotlan." This is additionally interesting from its being the first initiation in Freemasonry on English soil. It is equally pleasing to note, also, that General Alexander Hamilton, who was present on the above occasion, and afterwards commanded Cromwell's Artillery at Marston Moor, is mentioned in the records of the same Lodge as assisting at the initiation of an officer of the Royalist forces in 1647. Similarly in England, during the height of the struggle between King and Parliament, the Masonic craft continued its mission of good-feUowship, and in spite of the fierce heat of partisan feeling, many additions to the brotherhood were made among the members of each of the contending forces.
Coming, however, to the nearer times of George II, we find a more systematie extension of Military Mnsonry taking place. The Grand Lodges of England, Scotland and Ireland began to issue warrants establishing travelling Lodges in British regiments, and these ultimately became the means of a remarkable extension of the Brotherhood in our oversea possessions wherever our soldiers were stationed.

The first of these Regimental Lodges was established by the Grand Lodge of Ireland in a Scottish Regiment, appropriately enough the 1st Foot, or the Royal Regiment, now known as the Royal Scots. The date of this extent is 1732, and by the close of 1734 Lodges were founded in four other regiments. These, which at the time bore the names of their colonels, were subsequently known as the 33rd, the 27th, the 21st and 28th.
The record of their names is interesting inasmuch as they are those of the first British corps in which Masonic Lodges were created and maintained for many years. The example once set was soon followed, and ere long these travelling Lodges began to increase and multiply throughout the British Army. They counted among their members numbers of the most distinguished soldiers of the time, and it is worth noting, that from them, as the pioneers of Freemasonry in every- part of the world garrisoned by British soldiers, has largely sprung and developed the great and important cult of Freemasonry in the United States.
The history of these Regimental Lodges seems to have been a very choquered one, most of them expiring, with occasional renewals, after more or less prolonged existences. This, however regrettable, was the inevitable outeome of the military life, the constant migrations from station to station. war, and the death or retirement of members. From a grand total of some four hundred they had dwindled nine years ago to about eight, and now the general practise of soldier Freemasons is to become members of stationary Lodges.

At the battle of Mars-la-Tour, between the French and Germans in 1870, thirteen French soldiers of the 64th Regiment, though opposed to a whole German battalion, refused to surrender, and, getting behind a fallen tree, fought on till all were shot down except three. The position was then rushed. and the survivors were about to be bayonetted when the French corporal gave the Masonic "sign of distress." The German leader, also a Freemason, at onee eheeked his men, crving, "Don't harm him, he is my brother," and parried the blow aimed at hum The Frenchmen were made prisoners. but their lives were spared.
During the same war some Prussians, after looting a French chateau and destroying everything they could not carrv away, seized a box containing a large sum of money. Thev were about to maltreat the owner, who endeavoured to prevent them, when, as a last thought, he made the same sign. The Prussian officer was a Freemason, and instantlv recognised the appeal. He expressed regret for what had been done, and placed a guard over the chateau to prevent further outrages.
It is in accordance with the highest and best in human nature, therefore. that so many of our leading soldiers should all have been Freemasons. Referring to recent times we may mention Lord Chelmsford, of Ulundi fame, Sir Charles Warren, Lord Wolseley, Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener of Khartoum, each of the last three being a Past Grand Warden of England.

The lively interest taken by the Craft from of old in the Brethren whose welfare may be involved in the fortunes of war is elearly shown in a few paragraphs mentioned by the Book of Constitutions, 1767, page 282, referring to the Seven Years War, 1756 to 1763. These particulars are as follows:
Grand Lodge, at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, in the Strand, was held on the 24th of Jan. 1760. ..........
A Motion was made and seconded, that the Sum of Fifty Pounds be sent to Germany, to be distributed amongst the Soldiers that are Masons in Prince Ferdinand's Army, whether English, Hanoverian, or Hessian. The Deputv Grand Master acquainted the Brethren that Major-General Kingsley now in Prince Ferdinard's Army, was a Mason, and that if it was agreeable he would write to him, and desire he would distribute the aforesaid Sum amongst the Masons; which passed unanimously.
Ordered, that the Treasurer do par the Sum of Fifty Pounds into the Hand of the Deputy Grand Master, to remit to General Kingsley for the aforesaid Purpose.
Grand Lodge, at the Deril Tavern, Temple Bar, 14th of May 1760 in due Fornw....
The Deputy Grand Master produced a Letter from MajorGeneral Kingsley, with a List of the Masons in Prince Ferdinand's Armn also a Receipt for the Bill of Exchange, for the Fifty Pounds ordered to be sent to Germany at the last Quarterly Communucation.