A symbol of the Terrible Mother, appearing as the tutelar deity of Medea or as a lamia who devours men. she is a personification of the moon, or of the evil side of the feminine principle, responsible for madness, obsession and lunacy. Her attributes are the key, the lash, the dagger and the torch .
The he-goat is a kind of scape-goat a symbol of the projection of one's own guilt upon someone else, and of the consequent repression of one's conscience. Hence the traditional significance of the he-goat as an emissary, and its evil association with the devil . It is also, like the bull, a father-symbol .
Helios signifies the sun in its astronomic aspect, just as Apollo symbolizes it in its spiritual aspect. In ancient cults, he appears as a god who presides over the seasons, vegetation, fecundity and the fruitfulness of the earth .
In heraldic symbolism, it is an emblem of lofty thoughts, or of hidden thoughts if the vizor is lowered. This latter aspect corresponds to the general symbolism of invisibility, which is thus equated with the hood and the hat , although this seems to be a clear case of undue emphasis upon one meaning at the expense of all the others. The inevitable and intimate association of the helmet with the head has an important bearing upon the relation between two symbols: thus, a helmet with a strange crest may be a symbol of highly imaginative or restless exhilaration. The hat, the hood and the mantilla have the same intimate, symbolic association with the head: their colour usually denotes the wearer's prevailing shade of thought.
In Egyptian hieroglyphics, the semicircle with the diameter as the base is a sign representing the sun's orbit and also the hemisphere. It symbolizes the Origin counterbalanced by the End or birth counterbalanced by death. Grammatically, this hieroglyph expresses the feminine principle balancing the masculine ,
Herbs sometimes have the symbolic significance of human beings. This is suggested by the etymology of the Greek neophytos ('new herb') . They are also related to the idea of natural forces, both of good and evil. Because they can be both medicinal and poisonous, herbs are very commonly featured in legends and folktales, as well as in magic. The business of cataloguing the different characteristics of each herb or plant is clearly a matter for specialized study.
As a hero, Hercules became a symbol of the individual freeing himself in the quest for immortality, expiating his sins and errors through suffering and 'heroic striving'. In this way he was able, for his own sake and for that of his brother (whose existence relates Hercules to the Gemini-myth), to conquer, exterminate or master all monsters (symbolic of plagues, vices and the forces of evil) within the ordered and gradual process of the evolutionary struggle . His attributes are the club (a symbol of overwhelming force, of annihilation not merely of victory) and the Nemean lion's skin (a solar symbol) ). Hercules was unable to undertake a new task until after he had brought his previous trial to a successful conclusion. Hence alchemists, from Antiquity to the Middle Ages, would interpret the myth of Hercules-the-hero as a configuration of the spiritual struggle which leads to the 'conquest of the golden apples in the Garden of the Hesperides' or immortality.
Piobb has linked the twelve trials of Hercules with the signs of the Zodiac thus confirming his character as a solar hero recognized by mythologists as follows: his victory over the giants such as Geryon and Cacus with Aries; the Cretan bull with Taurus; the pillars with the Gemini; the hydra of Lerna and the birds of lake Stymphalus with Cancer; the lion of Nemea with Leo; the Amazons with Virgo; the walls of Troy and the Augean stables with Libra; the boar of Erymanthus with Scorpio; the centaurs and the mares of Diomedes with Sagittarius; the stag of the golden horns with Capricorn; the eagle and Prometheus with Aquarius; and the monster which attacked Hesione with Pisces .
Hermaphrodite deities, connected with the myth of birth , are found on many Egyptian monuments: for example, the pedestal of one of the colossi at Memnon. The hermaphrodite is a consequence of applying the symbolism of the number two to the human being, creating a personality which is integrated despite its duality. In India, this dual being two sexes united in a single personality was the primal force, the light from which life emanates , that is to say, the lingam . The myth of the hermaphrodite was also known in pre-Columbian Mexico, in the figure of Quetzalcoatl, the god in whom the laws of opposites and of the separate sexes are finally united. The hermaphrodite is, above all, a god of procreation , closely linked, and ultimately identified, with the Gemini archetype. Plato, in the Symposium, states that the Gods first created Man in the form of a sphere incorporating two bodies and both sexes.
This shows to what extent he subjected reality to symbolic and conceptual patterns and how in a characteristically Greek manner he permitted mortals to partake of such qualities as hermaphroditism, which were generally regarded as exclusive taco the more primitive gods ). Psychologically, it must not be overlooked that the concept of hermaphroditism represents a formula (which, like most mythic formulas, is only an approximation) of 'totality', of the 'integration of opposites' . In other words, it expresses in sexual and hence very obvious terms the essential idea that all pairs of opposites are integrated into Oneness. For Eliade, lhermaphroditism is, therefore, simply an archaic form of divine bi-unity. Magic-religious thinking first stated this concept in biological terms, before clothing it in metaphysical (esse non esse) or theological language (the revealed or non-revealed world). The androgynous divinity was also known in China and in many other countries (Persia, Palestine, Australia, etc.) .
In the androgynous myth we see,, however, not only an expression of the cause but also of the controlling spiritual energy. This is very clearly brought out by Ely Star when he says that no happiness, unless it be one of the exceptions mentioned by St. Paul, can prove satisfying until it is made whole by marriage (which is an imperfect image of hermaphroditism), since the spirit always manifests itself as a segregated form in the world of existence, and this is a source of suffering and 8 restlessness . Thus, the Hermaphrodite is not only linked to the remote Platonic past, but also projected into the future. In addition, it is clearly a symbol of an intellectual activity which is not in itself connected with the problem of the sexes. Blavatsky says that all peoples regarded their first god as androgynous, because Primitive humanity knew that he had sprung from 'the mind', as is shown by many traditions such as that of Minerva springing from the head of Jupiter ). l[n alchemy, the Hermaphrodite plays an important role as Mercury; he is depicted as a two-headed figure, often accompanied by the word Rebis (double thing).
The The ninth enigma of the Tarot pack. It is an allegory of an old man carrying in his right hand a lantern partially covered by one of the folds of his cloak, which is dark outside (signifying withdrawal and austerity) but with a blue lining (representing aerial nature). If he finds the serpent of the instincts in his path, he does not destroy it but simply charms it into twining itself round his staff, as Aesculapius did. He is a master of the invisible. On the positive side, the hermit signifies tradition, study, reserve, patient and profound work. On the negative, he stands for all that is taciturn, tedious and meticulous .
The The cult of the hero has been found necessary not only because of the exigencies of war, but because of the virtues inherent in heroism virtues which have surely been apparent to Man from prehistoric times and which he has felt the need to exalt, emphasize and record. The magic, the apparatus and the splendour of the very appurtenances of the ancient warrior proclaim the truth of this, as does the custom of according an acclamation worthy of kings to the conquering hero. The relationship between the 'little holy war', that is the struggle with the material enemies outside, and the 'Great Holy War', or combat with the spiritual enemies inside the personality, inevitably gave rise to the same relationship being drawn between the hero of the 'little war' and the champion of the 'Great War'.
Every heroic characteristic finds its analogy among the virtues necessary to vanquish chaos and overcome the temptations offered by the forces of darkness. This explains why, in many myths, the sun was identified with the hero par excellence. Hence, Alexander the Great is pictured on coins with the horns of Jupiter Ammon, that is, he is identified with the awakening sun of Spring under the sign of Aries. And this leads Jung to state that the most widely accepted of all the symbols of the libido and he could equally well have said 'the spirit' is the human figure as the hero the subject of so many myths, legends and traditional tales. He adds that in the life destined for the hero, the historical and the symbolic are one and the same thing. The first object of the hero is to conquer himself; and this is the reason why the heroes of Germanic legends are usually portrayed with the eyes of a snake. The mythic hero, Cecrops, is half-man and half-serpent . A hero turned Christian is a hero turned knight, with the aid of the saintly warriors such as St. George and St. Michael (Plate XVII).
Among the Egyptians, a symbol of the morning and of the generation of life. Together with the ibis and the stork, it carried a favourable significance ).
The They are the daughters of Atlas and Hesperis. They lived in a garden with trees bearing golden apples, watched over by a dragon. Hercules took possession of these apples, following upon his victory over the guardian dragon. Vossius explained this myth by an astronomical analogy, whereby the Hesperides become eventide, the garden becomes the firmament, the golden apples the stars, the dragon the Zodiac and Hercules the sun ). But this interpretation does not invalidate the psychology implicit in all the other symbols connected with this myth, in particular that of the hero and the treasure acquired only after great exertions.
A fabulous animal, half-horse and half-cock, and probably a sun-symbol.
A fabulous animal, half-horse and half-griffin, which Ariosto and other authors of books of chivalry gave to their heroes for a steed. It is a kind of supercharged Pegasus, a blend of the favourable aspects of the griffin and the winged horse in its character as the 'spiritual mount' ).
In the Egyptian system of hieroglyphs, it represents strength and vigour. It is also related to the ideas of fertility and water, and, consequently, to the mother-principle .
A symbol of impure desires, of the transmutation of the higher into the lower and of the amoral plunge into corruption .
A very important symbol, with two main aspects: on the biological level, it has fertilizing power and is related to fertility rites; on the spiritual plane, it stands for the 'opening' of this world on to the other world. Worship of 'perforated stones' in one form or another is very common all over the world. Eliade notes that, in the region of Amance, there is just such a stone in front of which women kneel to pray for the health of their children. To this day, in Paphos, barren women crawl through the hole of such a stone. Primitive Indian peoples were mainly concerned with its symbolism at the physical level, identifying the hole with the female sexual organs, although they too had an intuitive awareness of the fact that holes could stand for the 'gateway of the world', which the soul has to cross in order to be released from the cycle of karma . In the BrEhadaranyaka Upanishad it is said that 'when a human being leaves this world, he makes his way through the air, and the air opens up for him as wide as a cartwheel' .
The artistic expression of this symbol is found in the Chinese pi, i.e. the representation of heaven. It is a jade disc with a hole in the middle; measurements vary from case to case, but according to the Chinese dictionary frh Ma, the relation between the outside ring and the central hole remains constant. This hole is the Hindu 'gateway', also the Aristotelian 'unvarying mean' or 'unmoved mover'. The origins of the pi are exceedingly remote, and carved and decorated Pi have also been found . As a symbol of heaven, the hole also stands specifically for the passage from spatial to non-spatial, from temporal to non-temporal existence, and corresponds to the zenith . The strange and roughly hewn door-openings of some neolithic stone-structures have been interpreted by some scholars as symbolic holes in the above sense; the laborious nature of these holes could otherwise have been avoided by means of the simple and well-known pillar-and-lintel method of construction.
An outstanding example of this kind of door is that at Hagiar Kim (Malta). It is interesting to note, in this connexion, that the initiation ceremony among the Pomo Indians of Northern California includes a ritual blow from a grizzly bear paw, which is supposed to make a hole in the neophyte's back, on account of which he 'dies' and is reborn to a new stage of life. It is probable that, from the earliest times, the visual aspect of wounds helped to strengthen the association between the concept of the hole and that of passing into the other life. All this seems to be corroborated by the fact that in many symbolist pictures, e.g. in Gustave Moreau's Orpheus, the background landscape includes perforated rocks which are evidently invested with a transcendental significance. It is also worth recalling Salvador Dali's frequent practice, amounting almost to an obsession, of painting holes (regular in shape, like windows) on the backs of some of his figures.
A hollow is the abstract aspect of the cavern, and the inverse of the mountain. There are many symbolic significances superimposed upon the basic sense of the hollow, such as that of the Abode of the Dead, of Memories and of the Past, with further allusions to the mother and also to the unconscious , as the link between all these different aspects.
In Orphic tradition, honey is a symbol of wisdom. The occult maxim 'the bees are born from the oxen' finds its explanation in the astrological relationship between Taurus and Cancer and in the symbolic use of the ox as a sign for sacrifice, expressive of the idea that there is no higher knowledge without suffering. Honey was also credited with other meanings: rebirth or change of personality consequent upon initiation; and, in India, the superior self (comparable with fire). Given that honey is the product of a mysterious and elaborate process, it is easy to understand how it came by analogy to symbolize the spiritual exercise of self-improvement .
The hood or cone-shaped hat often figures in ancient and mediaeval iconography. It is to be related with the Phrygian cap and other similar forms of headgear which are to be seen in Greek and Roman art. A relief of the 14th century shows Parsifal armed with two lances and wearing the cone-shaped cap characteristic of the Cabiri. It seems that the hood unites and blends together the two separate meanings of the cape and the hat; in addition, its shape and its colour contribute further to the symbolism as a whole . In Jung's view, the hood, since it envelopes practically the whole of the head and is almost spherical in shape, comes to symbolize the highest sphere, that is, the celestial world (represented symbolically by the bell, the vault, the upper part of the sand-bag and the doublepumpkin, as well as by the skull) . Furthermore, covering one's head signifies invisibility, that is, death. For this reason, the initiated appear in some scenes in ancient mystery plays with their heads covered by a cloak. Jung rounds off the presentation of his evidence with this piece of information: 'Among the Nandi, of East Africa, the newly-circumcised, the initiates, have to go about for a long time dressed in queer cone-shaped grass hats, which envelop them completely and reach to the ground. The circumcised have become invisible, i.e., spirits. The veil has the same significance among nuns.' Diel confirms this interpretation, taking the hood as a symbolic agent of repression or that which renders the psychic content invisible .
Some of the unfavourable interpretations of hornsymbolism are due to the all-too-common association with the ancient symbol of the ox (standing for castration, sacrifice and persistent toil), or perhaps also as a result of 'symbolic inversion'. For, in fact, all primitive traditions prove that the horn is a symbol of strength and power. Hides and battle-helmets were adorned with horns from prehistoric times right up to the Middle Ages. The horn played its part in the decorative art of Asiatic temples; like the bucraneum (representing sacrificial remains), the horn was considered sacred. The precise meaning of the horn-symbol was understood as far back as Egyptian times. In their system of hieroglyphs, the sign of the horn indicates 'what is above the head' and, by extension, 'to open up a path for oneself' (in which it is comparable with the ram's head, Aries and the battering-ram). It is a striking fact that the signs which initiate the cycle of the Zodiac (Aries and Taurus) are both represented by horned animals .
The relevant Egyptian hieroglyph also enters into composite words signifying elevation, prestige, glory, etc. . The single horn pertains in essence apart from its employment in the emblem of the cornucopia or as a musical instrument to the fabulous unicorn and the rhinoceros. The horn of the latter, carved out in the form of a cup, is one of the 'common emblems' of China, and stands for prosperity (and therefore for strength). The same belief is found among the Gnostics, who expressly state that the horn symbolizes the 'principle which bestows maturity and beauty upon all things'. Jung offers the explanation that the horn is a dual symbol: from one point of view it is penetrating in shape, and therefore active and masculine in significance; and from the other, it is shaped like a receptacle, which is feminine in meaning . As a musical instrument, it figures in emblems symbolizing the spiritual call to join the Holy War. This particular meaning is corroborated by the crosses, trefoils, circles and fleurs-de-lis associated with the horn ). Horns are the attributes of the Cilician god of agriculture. He holds handfuls of corn, symbolizing fertility.
The symbolism of the horse is extremely complex, and beyond a certain point not very clearly defined. Eliade finds it an animal associated with burial-rites in chthonian cults , whereas Mertens Stienon considers it an ancient symbol of the cyclic movement of the world of phenomena; hence the horses, which Neptune with his trident lashes up out of the waves, symbolize the cosmic forces that surge out of the Akasha the blind forces of primigenial chaos . Applying this latter concept to the biopsychological plane, Diel concludes that the horse stands for intense desires and instincts, in accordance with the general symbolism of the steed and the vehicle . The horse plays an important part in a great number of ancient rites. The ancient Rhodians used to make an annual sacrifice to the sun of a four-horse quadriga, which they would hurl into the sea .
The animal was also dedicated to Mars, and the sudden appearance of a horse was thought to be an omen of war ). In Germany and England, to dream of a white horse was thought to be an omen of death . It is very interesting to note that the great myth and symbol of the Gemini, illustrated in pairs or twins, in two-headed beasts or in anthropomorphic figures with four eyes and four arms, etc., appears, too, in horse-symbolism, especially in the form of a pair of horses, one white and one black, representing life and death. The Indian Asvins the probable source of Castor and Pollux would depict themselves as horsemen. In mediaeval illustrations of the Zodiac, the sign for the Gemini is sometimes portrayed in this way, as for example in the Zodiac of Notre Dame de Paris . Considering that the horse pertains to the natural, unconscious, instinctive zone, it is not surprising that, in Antiquity, it should often have been endowed with certain powers of divination ). In fable and legend, horses, being clairvoyant, are often assigned the task of giving a timely warning to their masters, as in the Grimms' fable, for example.
Jung came to wonder if the horse might not be a symbol for the mother, and he does not hesitate to assert that it expresses the magic side of Man, 'the mother within us', that is, intuitive understanding. On the other hand, he recognizes that the horse is a symbol pertaining to Man's baser forces, and also to water, which explains why the horse is associated with Pluto and Neptune . Deriving from the magical nature of the horse, is the belief that the horse-shoe brings luck. On account of his fleetness, the horse can also signify the wind and sea-foam, as well as fire and light. In the BrEhadaranyaka Upanishad (I, , the horse is actually a symbol of the cosmos (Plate XVIII).
A symbol denoting the inversion of the relations between the Upper and Lower Worlds an inversion encompassed periodically by Shiva (or Siva), the lord of creation and destruction. Connected with it are the drum similar in shape and the cross of St. Andrew; the symbolic significance of all three is identical .
The In the Iliad, the hours are personifications of the atmospheric moisture: they open and close the gates of Olympus, form and disperse the clouds, govern the seasons and human life. While they were performing these duties, they were regarded as daughters of Zeus and Themis, bearing such names as Eunomia, Dike and Irene, representing Law, Justice and Peace. All twelve constitute the retinue of Eos and are depicted ranged around the sun-throne or busily coupling the horses to the sun-chariot. We must observe, therefore: (a) that they are expressive of cosmic forces; (b) that they personify moments of these forces and therefore create the opportunities for human action. Their position, surrounding the sun, is analogous to the way angels (red and blue positive and negative) are depicted encircling the mandorla of God in Christian iconography.
Mystics have always traditionally considered the feminine aspect of the universe as a chest, a house or a wall, as well as an enclosed garden. Another symbolic association is that which equates the house (and the above, related forms) with the repository of all wisdom, that is, tradition itself ). In architectural symbolism, on the other hand, the house carries not only an overall symbolism but also particular associations attached to each of its component parts. Nevertheless, the house as a home arouses strong, spontaneous associations with the human body and human thought (or life, in other words), as has been confirmed empirically by psychoanalysts. Ania Teillard explains this by pointing out that, in dreams, we employ the image of the house as a representation of the different layers of the psyche. The outside of the house signifies the outward appearance of Man: his personality or his mask. The various floors are related to the vertical and spatial symbols.
The roof and upper floor correspond to the head and the mind, as well as to the conscious exercise of self-control. Similarly, the basement corresponds to the unconscious and the instincts (just as sewers do, in symbols pertaining to the city). The kitchen, since this is where foodstuff is transformed, sometimes signifies the place or the moment of psychic transmutation in the alchemical sense. The intercommunicating rooms speak for themselves. The stairs are the link between the various planes of the psyche, but their particular significance depends upon whether they are seen as ascending or descending. Finally, there is, as we have said, the association of the house with the human body, especially regarding its openings, as was well understood by Artemidorus Daldianus .
In Ludovico Dolce's Le Transformationi, the following scene is described: In a clearing in a wood there is a small lake, with a man, kneeling, gazing into the surface of the water a symbol of contemplation. In the background, a hunter on horseback, with a pack of dogs, is in pursuit of his prey a symbol of action for its own sake, of repetition, of the pursuit of transitoriness, of the will to remain (as the Hindu phrase has it) on the 'wheel of reincarnations'. Lao-Tse taught that racing and hunting only serve to madden the heart of Man, thus revealing that the enemy is within: that it is desire itself. Similarly, Zagreus another name for Dionysos means 'the Great Hunter' and stands for the insatiable incontinence of desire , according to the moral interpretation of Diel. For those who prefer a cosmic interpretation, the myth of the infernal hunt, in which colour and form are mixed together without rhyme or reason, alludes to the howling wind ). The Arabs identify this wind with both the hunter and death .
The figure of the accursed hunter is one which is to be found in a great many mythologies, traditions, legends and folktales. The following passage taken from Julio Caro Baroja will illuminate many aspects of the myth, and clarify what we have already said: 'A Basque tradition (Abade chacurra: the abbot's dogs) has it that an abbot or priest, much drawn to hunting, was saying Mass just as a hare happened to run past. The Abbot's dogs caught its scent and rushed out, howling, after it; the abbot deserted the Most Holy Sacrament, and hastened out of the temple after his dogs in pursuit of the prey. Henceforth, as a punishment, he was condemned to an endless chase, whirling across the plains behind his howling dogs, never to run down the quarry he so bootlessly pursues.' This is clearly a case of a symbol for a 'limiting situation', that is, of a falling away from the centre or the tendency to do so towards the endlessly turning periphery of the wheel of phenomena: unending because self-delusion is a perpetual incitement to the sterile urge of the pursuit of worldly things. In other versions the hare is the devil disguised.
This theme of the accursed hunter is to be found called, variously. 'The Black Hunter', 'The Wicked Hunter' or 'The King's Dog'. It is derived from the myth of Odin, the god of souls. Amongst the so-called Celtic peoples, Odin has been replaced by King Arthur or Arthus, as is shown by the 'chasses du roi Arthus', traditional in Normandy. There are other similar traditions, such as the 'chasse Annequin' in Normandy, 'Manihennequin' in the Vosges, the 'chasse Saint Hubert' and 'du Grand Veneur' . In Dontenville's view, an important mythic precedent is to be found in Meleager and the boar .
Anthropologists have found that many graphic symbols owe their origin to the hurricane especially in America. This is true, for instance, of the sigma, the double sigma and the swastika. But at the same time, the hurricane has a symbolic meaning of its own. Ortiz observes that the hurricane, like celestial bodies, has two characteristic motions: rotary and sideways. In its sidewise motion, there is an intermediary point of absolute calm: the socalled 'eye of the hurricane'. For American aborigines, the hurricane is cosmic synergy, since it contains three Elements within itself (fire or light-rays, air or wind, water or rain) and disturbs the fourth earth. It was worshipped as a deity of the winds and waters, and also of the heavens . This latter aspect of its correspondences brings us once again to the celebrated and persistent celestial symbol of the 'hole' in the disc of Chinese jade, representing the concept of the zenith as a void through which one may pass out of the world of space and time into spacelessness and timelessness.
Hyle is protomatter, a symbol of the passive, feminine, primordial principle. According to Nicomachus of Gerasa, the pristine state of chaos of the hyle was fecundated by Number. Hildegard of Bingen 098-117, the abbess of Rupertsberg, in Scivias, describes cosmogonic visions in which Nous blends and harmonizes with the monster chaos .